5. Enthusiastic supporters of the idea of a “universal basic income” for all citizens, meanwhile, will look to Finland where a trial is now well under way. In France, Emmanuel Macron will try to tread a delicate line in 2018 as he reforms the labour market, hoping to inject flexibility without increasing insecurity or incensing the unions.
6. The refugees have streamed into Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Spain, Malta and Cyprus during 2015, with a huge majority -- over 800,000 -- arriving by sea in Greece. About 3,600 died or disappeared trying to make the perilous Mediterranean Sea crossing between North Africa and Italy.